Glossary

ICO

(Initial Coin Offerings) is an acronym, which means a primary currency offer.

(Initial Coin Offerings) – is an acronym, which means a primary currency offer. This acronym resembles the IPO (Initial Public Offering), a term that is used when a company is rapidly developing, gaining popularity and ready to share shares with potential investors in exchange for money. And it is the ICO that is related to the financing of the business project. Main characteristics of ICO. Let's consider the main characteristics of ICO: · Anyone can join a project or become part of an ecosystem. · Currencies ICO usually sell shares within an economy, and tokens ICO, in turn, sell the ownership or royalty of the project. · Holders of tokens do not always have the right to vote in project management. · Most ICOs entail the creation of a clearly established number of coins or tokens before the sale. · The prices of ICO are in most cases regulated by the creators of the ecosystem. · Fundraising in ICO can take place in several stages: first, the currency or tokens are offered, then their value increases until the launch date, so that the first investors are likely to receive more rewards included in their tokens, as well as the incentive to be the first buyers. · ICO concludes that the currency or tokens are negotiable in the open market. Recently, investors ICO are surprised by the revenues and growth of the market capital of cryptocurrencies. And although there are good cases, which in some cases can even be called implausible, but there are also risks, and not all projects are successful. And this must be taken into account before entering the world of blockchain and especially ICO. It is necessary to carefully study and evaluate the project.

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Ponzi

Modell Ponzi ist ein ökonomischer Finanzbegriff, der eine Art von Investionsabenteuer bezeichnet, die sogenannte "Investitionspyramide".

Modell Ponzi ist ein ökonomischer Finanzbegriff, der eine Art von Investionsabenteuer bezeichnet, die sogenannte "Investitionspyramide". Bei diesem Investionsabenteuer muss das Opfer mit fabrizierten Berichten von hohen Rückführungen und geringen Risiken überzeugt werden. Der Betrug beruht auf der Rückgabe von profitablen Geldern an ältere Investoren mit Geld von neuen Kunden. Unternehmen, die an Ponzi Schemes teilnehmen, arbeiten nur an Werbung und ziehen neue Investitionen an, ohne ein legales, echtes Produkt zu schaffen. Dieses Schema ist nach dem italienischen Betrüger Charles Ponzi benannt. In den 1920er Jahren erfand und implementierte er ein solches System in den Vereinigten Staaten und schätzte seine Investoren auf etwa 25 Millionen Dollar. Ponzi Betrug war jedoch nicht der erste seiner Art. Das Schema wurde zu Ehren dieses Ingenieurs benannt, weil sein Betrug einer der größten war. Das Modell Ponzi ähnelt dem Modell und wird bis heute in verschiedenen Versionen durchgeführt. Zum Beispiel verwendeten Betrüger Kryptowährungs–ICOs, um Ponzi–Schema auszuführen. In der modernen Welt der Kryptowährung ist dieser Betrug ziemlich verbreitet. Einige Investoren haben sogar gelernt, den Betrug zu ihrem Vorteil zu nutzen. Sie machten die ersten Beiträge zur Ponzi–Pyramide und schafften es, den Betrag zu verdoppeln und das Spiel zu verlassen, bevor der betrügerische Betrug bankrott ging.

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Airdrop

– is a free distribution of cryptographic coins.

– is a free distribution of cryptographic coins. This distribution of tokens most often occurs within the framework of a project and is excellent marketing ploy to promote new cryptocurrency. Most of the Airdrop–projects occur for the promotion of new types of blockchain platforms that have just appeared on the market. Distinctive feature: you can get a small number of tokens for free by performing simple actions (subscribing, registering, participating in discussions at a focus–seminar). After listing and receiving money in the wallet, coins can be trade on the exchange or in the exchanger. Airdrops have two main types: 1.Automatic. It is carried out based on forks of an already existing, promoted cryptocurrency. The most common example is the distribution of coins to those who already have the necessary number of specific tokens in their online wallet. 2. Stimulating. Perform simple tasks to popularize the project (reposts, subscriptions, article retweets, etc.).

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Altcoin

– are the common name for all cryptocurrencies (except Bitcoin).

– are the common name for all cryptocurrencies (except Bitcoin). The first Altcoins appeared on the global financial market in early 2011. At the time of 2018, there are more than three thousand different altcoins, whose total capitalization is $ 343.586 billion. The main purpose of the creation of altcoins: eliminate the disadvantages and limitations of Bitcoin. Although most of the Altcoins are essentially the forks of Bitcoin or Ethereum. That is, they work according to the Bitcoin Block Chainom or Etherem Block Chainom basic protocols. Based on this, most altcoins are peer–to–peer and work to improve the quality and speed of transactions. Advantages of Altcoins: 1. Advanced functionality, use on specialized blockchain platforms, smart–contracts; 2. Simpler than Bitcoin mining. Alternative protocol options that are suitable for inexpensive equipment; 3. Modified algorithms that speed up transactions; 4. The ability to configure additional types of encryption of the person (not all altcoins).

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Arbitration

– is an economic term that means the process of making several logically related financial transactions.

– is an economic term that means the process of making several logically related financial transactions. The purpose of the arbitration: to extract profit from the difference in price policy for the same currency, commodity, securities. The etymology of the concept: from the French "Arbitrage", which translates as "fair decision". Cryptocurrency arbitrage takes place on online exchanges and is not a prohibited method of making money. Cryptocurrency arbitration is usually typed into: 1. Spatial – buying (cheaper) on one exchange and resale (more expensive) to another. 2. Temporary – buying and selling on one exchange, but at different time intervals. 3. Equivalent – in the form of a leverage (credit). 4. Regulatory — profits are derived from regulatory differences or national circumstances. 5. Aidrop arbitrage – partly “temporary”, getting free tokens of the new currency and resale of coins when they become popular. Traders who are engaged in arbitration are called – arbitrators. Now, it is the most popular type of exchange activity.

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Asiс

– specialized technical equipment for mining cryptocurrency.

(ASIC) – specialized technical equipment for mining cryptocurrency. For mining each cryptocurrency, separate crypto–algorithmic mining schemes are used, and therefore separate types of Asics. The abbreviation ASIC (from English) means “application–specific integrated circuit”. These devices are specialized for solving specific problems. Asics in the cryptocurrency world are used for fast and efficient mining of one particular coin. Modern ASICs have 32– or 64– bit processors and several cores. Another name for Asic is technological single–chip systems. The built–in memory blocks can be of two types – ROM or RAM. Thanks to ASIC, we managed to maximize parallelization of calculations, which made mining more profitable. But because of the mono–functionality of the algorithmic computing system, only one currency can be mined in Asic.

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Bitcoin Block

– is an element of the blockchain, a set of records of completed transactions in a cryptocurrency network.

– is an element of the blockchain, a set of records of completed transactions in a cryptocurrency network. A Block is a part or complete information about operations that are not yet reflected in the previous elements of the chain. Each new block is added to the end of the chain without the possibility of making edits. Its structure contains data about past blocks that were created before it. The block structure includes a record of operations and the past element of the chain. The peculiarity of the next block is the presence of a personal solution, which is reflected in the title. To hit a block in a blockchain, you need to find the hash–parameter of the header, which is lower than the specified limit. The miner's goal is to find the correct input data by iterating through the options. To solve the problem, powerful equipment is used – video cards, ASIC– chips. If the participant has found a suitable option, he informs the other nodes about the receipt of the block, which is checked by the other elements of the chain and is included in the blockchain. The number of options for the header determines the complexity of the calculations. The higher this parameter, the greater the power required for finding the solution and the extraction of the block. The change in complexity occurs at intervals of 2016 blocks, that is, once every two weeks. The extraction of one unit takes an average of ten minutes. As network capacity grows, mining complexity increases and vice versa. This means that the indicators of complexity and power are in a ratio that remains unchanged. The time interval required to create a new block does not change. In the mining process it happens that the miners received several solutions for one block. As a result, chain branching occurs. In the future, a genuine branch is recognized as having a greater length, and the other ceases to exist. If the transaction is in a short branch, it is excluded from the chain and returns to the number of unconfirmed transactions. After a time, it is included in the next block element.

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Blockchain

is a continuous and sequential block chain of information (digital linked list). When building a blockchain, copies of related blocks are simultaneously stored on multiple computers.

is a continuous and sequential block chain of information (digital linked list). When building a blockchain, copies of related blocks are simultaneously stored on multiple computers. For the first time, the term “blockchain” was used to denote a replicated, distributed database that was implemented in the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. Therefore, the Blockchain technology is attributed mainly to the topic of transactions in cryptocurrencies. But in addition to virtual money, blockchain can be extended to any other information blocks. Today, the blockchain technology is being introduced into various spheres of human activity. Blockchain is used: Cryptocurrency sphere. Banking Investment funds. Work on financial exchanges. For identification. Used in countries: Brazil, Finland, Estonia. Use companies – Bitnation (ID and notary); Accenture, Microsoft (digital ID). Land registries. Payment instrument.

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Validity

– is a term used in economics, psychology, financial affairs and other social disciplines. It means the degree of reliability, correctness and reliability of information, organization, enterprise.

– is a term used in economics, psychology, financial affairs and other social disciplines. It means the degree of reliability, correctness and reliability of information, organization, enterprise. The etymology of the concept has French roots, from "valide", which means "valid". In the cryptocurrency sphere, it is used to measure the security level of an exchange and the reliability of an ICO. Also, the term is used to denote the legality of the actions of a trader, a miner, etc. Conventionally, cryptocurrency exchanges are divided into: 1. With low validity – new small exchanges that are not yet verified by users. Or exchanges with insufficient security wallet. 2. With "zero" validity, invalid – HYIPs and projects of fraudsters. 3. With high validity – time–tested platforms with a high level of security. In philosophy, the term "validity" is the formal equivalent of the criterion "truth."

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Volatility

– is a financial term that means a statistical indicator of price change. In the cryptocurrency world, it is used by traders as an indicator for managing financial risks. That is, it is a measure of trade risk and as a financial analytical tool for gambling.

– is a financial term that means a statistical indicator of price change. In the cryptocurrency world, it is used by traders as an indicator for managing financial risks. That is, it is a measure of trade risk and as a financial analytical tool for gambling. To calculate the coefficient of volatility, you must consider the indicators of the sample standard deviation. This will make it possible to understand how profitable it is to buy (sell) a cryptocurrency at specified time intervals. Types of volatility analysis are usually typed by duration. That is, how the course has changed over the past few days, months or a year. Types of Volatility: 1. Absolute – it is not the percentages that are calculated, but the exact amounts. Absolute volatility is used for short–term analysis, for example, how many dollars the rate rose in one day. 2. Regarding the initial cost – calculated as a percentage. It is used for long–term analysis, for example, course jumps over the past year.

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Genesis Block

– is a cryptocurrency term used to designate the first block in a blockchain. Thanks to the creation of this block, a new cryptocurrency is being born.

– is a cryptocurrency term used to designate the first block in a blockchain. Thanks to the creation of this block, a new cryptocurrency is being born. A genesis block is the only block in a chain that does not have a parent block and is connected with a “hash” unilaterally with the next block. Like the subsequent blocks, the genesis consists of a “head” and a “playload” transaction record. The “head” and “playload” genesis of the block contain the following information: Exact block creation time. Hash–code of the block. Nonce and bits parameters for building a blockchain and mining. Hash–code of the first transaction (according to the Merkle Tree algorithm, if several first transactions were simultaneously performed). The first transaction in the genesis block cannot be spent. In some cases, the “author” of a cryptocurrency can encrypt a message in the hash of a zero block. For example, the Bitcoin genesis block: “The Times 03 / Jan / 2009 Chancellor for bailout for banks. The genesis block is the first step to create any blockchain.

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CrowdSale

– is a pre–sale process. Pre–sale of tokens (during, before the ICO or as a marketing ploy) is organized to attract collective investment in the project.

– is a pre–sale process. Pre–sale of tokens (during, before the ICO or as a marketing ploy) is organized to attract collective investment in the project. As practice has shown, most of the crowdsales are held before the launch of ICO. During the crowdsale, anyone can buy tokens of cryptocurrency project at a low price. The proceeds go to the implementation and promotion of the platform. Often crowdsales can take place on stock exchanges. For example, large online exchanges like EtherDelta or Kraken create hot offers for the sale of yet non–existing tokens. CrowdSale tokens targets: Increase financing. Popularization. Preview statistics on potential benefits from future sales. Analysis of the product and making changes. Support the project before entering the market.

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Cryptocurrency hyips

– means the process of making money by attracting financial resources of investors to a project

– means the process of making money by attracting financial resources of investors to a project. In most cases, using a dictionary combination of “cryptocurrency HYIP” means deception or fraud associated with digital coins: mining scams, dummy “farms”, trading – HYIP. HYIP– companies are a way to make quick money on the Internet at high risk of being burned out for depositors. The most popular cryptocurrency HYIP today is the construction of a financial pyramid disguised as an investment fund. Pyramid type cryptocurrency HYIPs Pyramid type HYIPs– the principle remains the same as from the days of Mavrodi: the HYIP– project continues to work exactly until there are depositors. As soon as potential investors are not planned – the project is minimized, the top remains with the money, and the bottom rows of investors are burned through. In the case of a cryptocurrency, to prove something, go to court or call the police is unrealistic. The main feature of digital virtual coins is that they are decentralized and completely anonymous. Therefore, cryptocurrency pyramid type HYIPs are an ideal crime without consequences for swindlers. HYIPs with cryptocurrencies are divided into three categories according to the duration of the scam: Short–term HYIPs 2. Medium–term HYIPs 3.Long–term HYIP pyramids

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Liquidity

– is a term that means the ability to sell any financial assets (below or above the market price). The term “liquidity” in Latin means “liquid”, “flowing”.

– is a term that means the ability to sell any financial assets (below or above the market price). The term “liquidity” in Latin means “liquid”, “flowing”. Today, three types of liquidity are used: low (difficult to sell at market price), high (easy to sell) and illiquid assets (unrealistic). This means that the easier it is to sell a cryptocurrency, a building, equipment, a cash account or securities - the higher the level of liquidity will be. The liquidity of the subject is measured without discount, promotional or wholesale offers. In the cryptocurrency sphere, the term “liquidity” means the ability to sell, exchange a cryptocurrency coin at a market or “near-market” price. The more expensive a coin is sold and the more offers to buy it are received, the higher its liquidity will be in the market. "Liquidity" is used to measure how quickly and profitably you can sell a product or exchange currency. That is, they use the term not only in the banking sector, but for any economic designations. For example, low-liquid goods can be called irrelevant offers, or too expensive goods, or an unfinished house. A highly liquid are currencies, the rate of which is rapidly rising, or a promising project. Enterprises, ICO, stock exchanges, organizations, securities can be liquid or illiquid.

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Mining

– is a type of activity for creating new blocks in the Blockchain to ensure proper system operation.

– is a type of activity for creating new blocks in the Blockchain to ensure proper system operation. In the cryptocurrency world, mining has two main functions: 1. Support the work of the blockchain–platform and the introduction of committed transactions in the chain. Each committed transaction is recorded by the miners in the new block. 2. System to support the issuance of cryptocurrency. Mining has become an effective way to spread, increase the number of cryptographic coins. People who are engaged in mining are called – miners. Mining is a profitable process. Indeed, for the creation of each structural unit provides remuneration in the form of crypto–coins. The mining process is implemented by algorithmic calculations with the enumeration of parameters to find the number below the mark “target” – “hash”. Usually, mining farms (video cards) or ASICs ( application–specific integrated circuit) are used for calculations.

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Node

– is any computer that is connected to the Blockchain network. The etymology of the term: from the Latin "nodus", which translates as "node". Nodes are an important tool for creating new blocks in blockchain network.

– is any computer that is connected to the Blockchain network. The etymology of the term: from the Latin "nodus", which translates as "node". Nodes are an important tool for creating new blocks in blockchain network. Decentralized nodes work through P2P protocols and participate in the exchange of information about blocks and confirmed transactions. Nodes are divided into two types (depending on the number of saved blockchain information): 1. “Lightweight” node is a computer with special software that is connected to the Blockchain network. Such nodes do not store all the information. In the "lightweight" node, you can only find block headers to confirm the authenticity of transactions. They are not guided by a consensus algorithm. 2. “Full” node – a computer with special software that is connected to the Blockchain network around the clock and stores absolutely all the data of the chain, starting with the genesis–block (the first block of the chain). They are guided by a consensus algorithm.

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Order

– automatic application to buy or sell cryptocurrency. Orders are used during trading on the stock exchange to open and close a position.

– automatic application to buy or sell cryptocurrency. Orders are used during trading on the stock exchange to open and close a position. By type of execution, exchange orders are typed into: Limit exchange orders – orders for the purchase and sale at a specified price or higher. Market orders – orders are executed at the average market price on the exchange. “Stop orders” – used for urgent purchase and sale of crypto assets at an average market price or lower. Orders of incomplete execution is a kind of limit order, but with the condition of partial execution. That is, the purchase and sale of a smaller (or more) number of financial assets than was indicated in the initial application. On modern online–exchanges you can find up to 40 types of orders. There is also the possibility of independent formation of orders.

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Pump & Dump

– is a manipulative gambling scheme with a view to making quick money. The essence of the scheme is an artificial increase in the exchange rate of the currency on the market, the stock exchange with its subsequent collapse, or vice versa: a collapse followed by a rise.

– is a manipulative gambling scheme with a view to making quick money. The essence of the scheme is an artificial increase in the exchange rate of the currency on the market, the stock exchange with its subsequent collapse, or vice versa: a collapse followed by a rise. A Dump is a deliberate, logically justified mass sale of tokens for the collapse of the course. A Pump is a massive purchase of tokens of a certain cryptocurrency on a separate exchange. Purpose: for the shortest possible time to maximize the course. In the classical scheme (which was developed on Wall Street back in the 50s), the Dump always follows the Pump. But on modern exchanges, there are cases of reusable manipulation in various combinations for deliberately “swinging” and undermining the rate of popular currencies. Since there is no official regulation of the cryptocurrency market, the Pump & Dump scheme is quite common. The characters of the scam are called: "trader–promoter" and "trader–investor". As a rule, large stock exchanges prevent such fraud. For example, Bittrex in November 2017 updated the terms of cooperation. The new rules state that all accounts of traders who will be involved in the “pump and dump” are blocked, and information about individuals will be submitted to the court.

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Pools

– the union of miners in groups for the extraction of cryptocurrency.

– the union of miners in groups for the extraction of cryptocurrency. Participation in the pool significantly increases the chances for all participants to win. Each miner, according to his capacity, is assigned to find the value of nonce (one–time code) at a certain interval. After completing this task, the miner gets the following. The contribution of each participant to the closure of the block is estimated to be a share. A share is part of the job of finding a hash function for signing a block, which is issued to a miner by a pool. The task of the mining–pool is to collect the shares from the miners and check their validity. For the closure of the block, the mining pool receives a reward, which it must then distribute among all members of the pool. There are several approaches to the distribution of remuneration: 1.PROP or proportional approach – a simple variant of the distribution of remuneration for finding a block. In accordance with this approach, the reward is divided in proportion to each member of the mining pool. Payment of remuneration is carried out only after the signing of the block. 2.PPLNS (Pay Per Last N Shares) – the most effective option for the distribution of remuneration for signing a block. Payments are made not by the fact of finding a block, but for “Shifts” (a certain number of time slots). 3.PPS (Pay Per Share) is the most optimal (from the pool member’s point of view) distribution of remuneration for finding a block. In this case, the miner, the participant in the pool, receives a certain reward for each share sent to them. The amount of this payment is calculated by dividing the reward for finding a block by the complexity of the network. For the mining– pool, this option is not the most preferable, because the risks with this payment option are much higher (therefore, pools that use this approach charge a large commission).

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Softfork

– minor code change without violation of the main protocol.

– minor code change without violation of the main protocol. It is used by the developers of cryptocurrency or top mining–pools, which need to make minor changes to the network. No software update is required, the network is rolled back a few blocks and makes the necessary changes to the code. To perform Softfork you need permission of most network participants. But those users who did not support the changes can continue to work on the old chain.

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Token

– is an accounting unit that is used to represent a digital balance in an asset.

– is an accounting unit that is used to represent a digital balance in an asset. Tokens are recorded in a database based on blockchain technology. And they are accessed through special applications using electronic signature schemes. The use of tokens is limited to the scope of the project. But they are multifunctional: they can be used as a currency within the project, as an indicator of share ownership or for the right to vote for changes in the project. This is their main difference from cryptocurrency. E–currencies have one function – exchange for goods and services. Tokens can be exchanged at different platforms regardless of origin. Types of tokens: — Equity tokens – represent a company stock. —Utility tokens – reflect some value in the business model of an online platform (reputation, points for certain actions, game currency). —Asset-backed tokens – digital obligations for real goods or services. Tokenization is a process of transformation of accounting and asset management, in which each asset is represented as a digital token. The essence of tokenization is to create digital analogs for real values ​​to work quickly and safely.

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Transaction

– is a financial term that means a logically meaningful operation that can only be carried out completely.

– is a financial term that means a logically meaningful operation that can only be carried out completely. The etymology of the concept: from the Latin "transactio", which translates as "agreement" or "contract". In the cryptocurrency world, it means transferring money to the recipient's online wallet. Transactions are divided into two main types: 1. Online–transaction. The operation is performed in real time. 2. Offline–transaction. The operation must be performed in the future. Most often based on smart–contracts, as well as during the automatic withdrawal of a credit (deposit) account. A transaction is the final stage of financial transactions. It is considered the main payment instrument of the modern world. Transactions are: confirmed (with a check, a letter about the success of the operation) and unconfirmed (without notification of success).

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Trading

– is an economic term that means the process of independent trade, independent analysis of the market and the conclusion of trade transactions.

– is an economic term that means the process of independent trade, independent analysis of the market and the conclusion of trade transactions. A trader is an independent merchant who acts on his own initiative and discretion. The term is used in the field of exchange trading in stocks, cryptocurrencies, option papers and bonds. It is less often used for the commodity market. For example, a cloth or grain trader. Trading (trader) is of two types: professional and private. Private traders are people who make deals for their own money and “work for themselves”. And professional traders work in the interests of large companies and at the expense of others (for example, buying shares of large enterprises at auctions). A distinctive feature of trading is an independent work that does not depend on incoming customer requests and completely excludes actions from a third party, mediation. Cryptocurrency trading is working with online exchanges to buy/sell crypto-coins. Trading cryptocurrency is typed by the duration of the process on: 1. "Scalper" – a large number of transactions in a short period of time, from 1 to 10 minutes per transaction. 2. “Day Trading” – the decision to make a deal is made within the time frame of one trading day (a ten-hour interval). 3. Investment Trading – an investment in crypto-ICO.

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Fork

– is the intentional use of one code base of a software project to start another. That is, changing the blockchain code to split it into two.

– is the intentional use of one code base of a software project to start another. That is, changing the blockchain code to split it into two. Each new branch of the chain can develop independently of the main project. This also applies to functions: in a new direction, it is possible to realize opportunities that were not there in the main. Bitcoin acts as a base for forks. All other cryptocurrencies are called BTC forks. The main distinguishing features of forks from each other: The encryption algorithm, The speed and complexity of the issue, Algorithm of hash–functions, hashing (SHA–256, scrypt, Scrypt–Adaptive–Nfactor (Scrypt–N), Keccak).

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Hardfork

– a fundamental change in the source code, incompatible with the old protocol and the used software.

– a fundamental change in the source code, incompatible with the old protocol and the used software. The new chain is detached from the old and no longer interacts with it. Transactions executed in the previous chain are not recognized by the new chain. To conduct Hardfork, network members must give their approval. However, if part of the miners come out against it, a split will occur. Based on one source code, two separate chains will appear. They can exist in parallel, but most often the chain that most users have chosen survives. The second immediately dies away or goes through a long period of stagnation.

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Hash

(hashing) – a cryptographic term that means changing the input data of different sizes into the original data of a clearly defined size, using a special mathematical algorithm.

(hashing) – a cryptographic term that means changing the input data of different sizes into the original data of a clearly defined size, using a special mathematical algorithm. The term is used by miners to calculate numbers below the “target” mark, as well as during cryptographic coding. For example, if you need to encode the names of the participants in the transaction in the blockchain, they are processed by a special program, and the initial alphanumeric code is called the Hash. In mining, a hash is a number that must be obtained to add a block to a chain and receive a reward. What is “hashing” for: Reliable coding of information. A unidirectional process that can store information in an unchanged form for a long time. One of the main components for cryptocurrency emission.

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